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Glossary of HPT Terms

Page history last edited by bbraine1@gsu.student.edu 10 years ago

Analyst: The most important role in human performance technology which involves performance analysis and cause analysis. The analyst conducts troubleshooting to isolate the cause(s) of human performance gaps or identifies areas in which human performance can be improved. (Rothwell, 2000) 

 

Appreciative Inquiry: Non-judgmental queries concerning a person's beliefs about a problem situation. (Rothwell, 2007) 

  

Bar Chart: A visual representation used to compare quantities, amounts, or proportions.  (Rothwell, 2000)  

 

Behavior: Any activity or actions the learner will be expected to exhibit after the training. Behavior is observable and measurable.

   

Business Needs: Operational or strategic goals for an organization. Business needs are expressed in operational terms and are typically measured in numbers.

 

Cause Analysis: The process of determining the root cause(s) of past, present or future performance gaps.

 

Change Implementation Skills: Understanding the nature of individual and organizational change and applying that knowledge to effectively lead organizations successfully through change. (Rothwell, 2007) 

 

Change Impetus Skills: Determining what organizations should do to address the cause of a human performance gap at present and in the future. (Rothwell, 2007)

 

Change Manager: The person who ensures that interventions are implemented in ways consistent with desired results and that they help individuals and groups achieve results. (Rothwell, 2000)

 

Communication Channel: Informal network and alliance understanding and knowing how communication moves through an organization by various channels, networks, and alliances.  (Rothwell, 2007)

 

Corollary: Small percentile who are close to the exceptional performance. (Rothwell, 2007)  A natural consequence or result. In mathematics, it is a proportion that is incidentally proved in proving another proposition, an immediate consequence or easily drawn conclusion.

  

Diagnostic Model: A type of model classification in which the model informs the performance analyst WHERE Human Performance Technology can be applied can be applied. Harless, an HPT Pioneer, with his attention focused on early determination of goals and performance, subscribes to this type of model. Rummler carried the diagnostic analysis to its fullest range, with separate organizational and individual performance domains that require separate solutions. Later diagnostic models followed in the footsteps of Harless and Rummler. (Rosenberg, 1992) (b)

 

Ecommerce: Transactions conducted on the internet.

 

Epicenter Testing Suites: Global testing centers.

 

Evaluator: The person who assesses the impact of interventions and follows up on changes made, actions taken, and results achieved in order to provide participants and stakeholders with information about how well interventions are being implemented. (Rothwell, 2000)

 

Facilitation Skills: Helping performers, performers' managers, process owners, and stakeholders to discover new insights. (Rothwell, 2007)

 

Holistic Model: A model that is categorized as such because of its nonlinear form and unique modeling characteristics. These models are often represented by overlapping domains that exist separately, but that form an ideal performance zone when combined. This type of model is generally explained with less detail than diagnostic and process models. Thus, HPT practitioners with greater experience feel more comfortable using them than beginners. (b)

 

Human Capital: The set of knowledge, skills, attitudes, and competencies of people in an organization.

  

Ishikawa or Fishbone Diagram: The fishbone diagram identifies many possible causes for an effect or problem. It can be used to structure a brainstorming session. It immediately sorts ideas into useful categories.

 

Image from www.nevron.com 

 

ISPI: Founded in 1962, the International Society for Performance Improvement (ISPI) is the leading international association dedicated to improving productivity and performance in the workplace. ISPI represents performance improvement professionals throughout the United States, Canada, and 40 other countries. ISPI's mission is to develop and recognize the proficiency of our members and advocate the use of Human Performance Technology. (http://www.ispi.org)

  

Instructional System Design (ISD): A formal process for designing training. The process includes analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation (ADDIE).

 

 

Image Source:  wwwnew.towson.edu

 

Intervention: Interventions can be both Instructional and non-instructional based on improvements in knowledge and skill or process, performance, plans and results. Interventions close performance gaps, can be cost effective and are linked to the value of problem solving.

 

Intervention Specialist: The person who selects appropriate interventions to address the root cause(s) of performance gaps. (Rothwell, 2000)

 

Job Aid: A device designed for use on the job and providing guidance on the performance of a specific task or skill.

 

Langdon's Language of Work Model: A diagnostic model designed by Danny Langdon. This model was designed to be accessible to novices who have an understanding of the knowledge and skills of their performers, yet are unable to express this knowledge systematically. The model describes performance as flowing from input, moving thru processes and output to consequences. It employs a feedback loop that reminds the analyst that outside factors, called conditions, affect the input and the process.

 

Line Chart: Used for showing trends over time; otherwise known as run charts. i.e. volume, cost, time. (Rothwell, 2007)

 

Measurability: Mager championed the concept of measurability. He introduced the concept that performance objectives must be applied under definable conditions and criterion. Analysts must have the ability to measure performance gaps, and eventually performance gains to judge the effectiveness of the interventions. In addition, the existence of measurable performance objectives strengthens the communication between the performance analyst and the business client. Business clients want tangible methods to both quantify and justify their investments.

 

Outputs: A product or service that an individual or group delivers to others, coworkers, customers, or clients. Each competency of the analyst role is linked to a number of outputs that represent tangible outcomes or results that are produced when someone enacts the competencies. There are primary two types, terminal and enabling outputs. Terminal output is a final outcome associated with a particular role. Enabling output is a competency that contributes to a terminal output.  (Rothwell, 2007)

 

Pareto Chart: A specialized type of bar chart. It follows the Pareto principle, which states that, when there are multiple factors affecting a situation, generally only a small number account for the most impact.

 

Performance: The accomplishment or end result of a task in accordance with a set standard of completeness and accuracy.

 

Performance Analysis: The process of identifying the organization's performance requirements and comparing them to its objectives and capabilities.

 

Performance Gap: The difference between desired and actual performance.

 

Image Source:  nwlink.com

 

Performance Needs: On-the-job behavioral requirements of people who are performing a specific job or role. Performance needs describe what people need to do more, better, or differently if the business needs are to be met.

 

Pie Chart: Used to compare quantities, amounts, or proportions like bar charts. (Rothwell, 2007)

 

Podcasts: Digital audio or video file or recording, usually part of a themed series, that can be downloaded from a Web site to a media player or computer.

 

Process Model: A type of model classification in which the model instructs the performance analyst on HOW Human Performance Technology can be applied. There are five general characteristics that help identify process models: 1) most models in this group are linear or sequential, 2) they have phased or grouped activities, 3) they are driven by GAP analysis, 4) they are intervention oriented, and 5) they usually contain a feedback mechanism. (Rosenberg, 1992) (b)

 

PIP (Potential for Improving Performance): A measure of opportunity, developed by Thomas Gilbert, in which the value of "exemplary" performance divided by "typical" performance represents the amount of opportunity available for improvement. A lower PIP number indicates that there is little room for improvement for that task or job.

 

Root Cause Analysis: The structured analysis of the factors that cause performance discrepancies. Causes can be physical, human (personnel) or organizational.

Rummler-Brache Methodology: Geary Rummler and Alan Brache defined a comprehensive approach to organizing companies around processes, managing and measuring processes and redefining processes in their 1990 book, Improving Processes. This is probably the best known, systematic approach to business process change and ideas first introduced in this book have been very influential on other, less comprehensive approaches. This book draws heavily from the basic approach laid out in Improving Processes.

 

Vantage Point: Sets a context and stated purpose. i.e. scientists microscope or telescope. (Rothwell, 2007)

 

Worthy Performance: The process of creating something, in which the value of the product or service (i.e., accomplishment) is more than what it cost to perform the work (i.e.,. behavior) required to create the product or service. Worthy performance was defined by Thomas Gilbert.

 

Resources:

(a) http://www.ispi.org/archives/Glossary/PHarmon.pdf

(b) http://www.sixboxes.com/_customelements/uploadedResources/HPTModels.pdf

(c) http://asq.org/learn-about-quality/cause-analysis-tools/overview/fishbone.html

(d) Rothwell, W. J., Hohne, C.K., King, S. B. (2007) Human Performance Improvement. Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.

(e) http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/corollary?o=100074

 

 

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